Strabismus Surgery


Irene H. Ludwig


Innovative and Classic Approaches

Strabismus surgical techniques developed in the 20th century were based upon anatomical knowledge and assumptions of that time. Most procedures involved recessions, which weaken muscles by moving their insertions posteriorlyon the sclera, or resections, which strengthen muscles byshortening them.Over the years, variations of those basic procedures were added to the mix, until our current complex collection of procedures was developed. Strabismus surgery can be frustrating, especially in adults and reoperation cases, in which results can be unpredictable.

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